Libya By | Saturday, September 8 2012 at 15:45
Full Name of state
Abdullah al-Thinni - Interim Prime Minister
Italy took over the area around Tripoli from the Ottoman Turks until 1943.
Libya Achieved independence on December 24, 1951.
Following a military coup, Col Muammar Gaddafi introduced own political system, the third universal theory. This blends socialism and Islam that borrows heavily from traditional practices.
In 1992, UN imposed sanctions against Gaddafi over the Pan AM Flight 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland.
In 2008, US and Libya signed a bilateral comprehensive settlement agreement. This offered victims of the Lockerbie and La Belle bombings, to recover the full compensation amount owed.
For the first time since 1973, Libya and US exchanged ambassadors in January 2009.
Form of Government
Interim rule under the National Transitional Council.
No parliamentary system and no political parties.
Interim rule under the National Transitional Council.
Manpower fit for military: 2.87 million
Expenditures: 3.9% of GDP
Branches: Armed Peoples on Duty, Libyan Arab Navy, Libyan Arab Air Force and Libyan Coast Guard
1969- 2011: Muammar Gaddafi
1932-1942: Zentani Muhammad az-Zentani
1940: Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab.
1939-1940: Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa
1939: Abdul Ati al-Obeidi.
Altitude: 17 metres
Population: 1.1 million
Size: 6.4 million
Life expectancy: 72 years (men), 77 years (women)
Gender Make-Up: 49 per cent males, 51 per cent females
GDP per capita
Land boundaries: Algeria 982km, Chad 1,055km, Egypt 1,115km, Niger 354km, Sudan 383km, Tunisia 459km
Arabic, Italian, English
Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%
Berber and Arab 97%, Other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians).
Petroleum, Natural gas, Gypsum
Crude oil, Petroleum products, Natural gas
Arable land: 1.03%
Permanent crops: 0.19%
Main Ports: Tripoli, Benghazi and Mersa Brega
Airport: Tripoli International Airport located at Ben Gashir, 34km southwest of Tripoli.
Very limited natural fresh water- around most arable part of the country, average annual rainfall averages between 200 and 600 millilitres.
Desertification especially due to spread of overgrazing.
Contamination of environment by human waste.
Soil degradation especially due to excess use of pesticides.
The great man-made lake that the Guinness Book of records acknowledges is the biggest irrigation project
New leadership after Muammar Gaddafi's 42-year rule.
Mustafa Abdul-Jalil proclaimed that Islamic Sharia law will be the ‘basic source’ of legislation in free Libya, to the shock of millions
Economy relies heavily on revenues from oil sector that contributes about 95 per cent of the export earnings.
Libya has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, thanks to the substantial revenues from the oil sector against a low population.
The country faces the challenge of liberalising the economy due to its socialist oriented economy.
Libya imports around 75 per cent of its food. The climatic and soil conditions don’t favour agricultural production
Housing the growing population.
Low education standards
Low health standards.
Libya was reinstated into the Arab League on 27 August, 2011, with the NTC as its representative
The People's Republic of China opposed the 2011 military intervention in Libya throughout the civil war, accusing the West of using force in an attempt to bring Libya into its sphere of influence
The US took longer than other leading NTC allies to formally recognise the council as Libya's legitimate authority, but it ultimately handed over the Libyan Embassy in Washington, D.C., to the NTC in early August 2011
The Major Conflicts
Libyan Civil War
When: 15 February 2011 - 23 October 2011
Who: Forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government
Why: The removal of the Gaddafi regime
Outcome: Gaddafi remained at large until 20 October 2011, when he was captured and killed attempting to escape from Sirte. The National Transitional Council "declared the liberation of Libya" and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011
Who: Libya and Chad forces
Why: Libya wanted to annex the Aouzou Strip, the northernmost part of Chad.
Outcome: Libyan forces expelled from Chad.
Who: Libya against Egypt
Why: Border war
Outcome: Ended in a ceasefire.
Who: A Pan Am 747 aircraft exploded killing 259 people aboard and 11 on the ground. This was over Lockerbie Scotland. Later, Libyan Islamists were held responsible for the explosion.
Why: Terrorists attack.
Outcome: Libya has signed an agreement to compensate the victims.
What: Seventy army officers and enlisted men took control of government and ended the monarch system; replaced it with Revolutionary Command Council (RCC).
Who: Army officers and enlisted men.
Why: Change system of government.
Outcome: Change of government system.
American Raid on Libya
What: America invades Libya
Who: America against Libya.
Why: worsening relations over territorial claims to the Gulf of Sidra
Outcome: Skirmishes continued with shooting of American plane over Mediterranean.
In February 2011, anti-Gaddafi protests spread from Benghazi to other parts of the country. Rebels (backed by NATO) began to fight government forces in an attempt to capture territory
By August, the rebels storm into Gaddafi's compound in Tripoli. Colonel Gaddafi was forced to go into hiding while his family fled to Algeria.
On October 20th, Gaddafi was captured by the rebels in his hometown of Sirte where he was tortured and killed
What to see
Berber traditional architecture- these are unique mud-brick architecture villages scattered throughout the remote mountainous area
Leptis Magna- ancient remains of Roman settlement.
Red Castle- Tripoli’s fortress houses.
The Pentapolis- five ancient Libyan cities.
Ghadames- a Unesco protected oasis town also known as the pearl of the desert.
Football, Athletics, Swimming, Martial arts, Boxing
Famous Sportsmen and Sportswomen
Mohamed Ali Esnani: a national footballer
Suleiman Ali Nashnush: a footballer and actor
Libya has no natural rivers.
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