Libya By | Saturday, September 8   2012 at  15:45

Full Name of state

Libya (English)

Current Leader

Abdullah al-Thinni - Interim Prime Minister

Overview
Italy took over the area around Tripoli from the Ottoman Turks until 1943.
Libya Achieved independence on December 24, 1951.
Following a military coup, Col Muammar Gaddafi introduced own political system, the third universal theory. This blends socialism and Islam that borrows heavily from traditional practices.
In 1992, UN imposed sanctions against Gaddafi over the Pan AM Flight 103 bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland.
In 2008, US and Libya signed a bilateral comprehensive settlement agreement. This offered victims of the Lockerbie and La Belle bombings, to recover the full compensation amount owed.
For the first time since 1973, Libya and US exchanged ambassadors in January 2009.

Facts

Form of Government
Interim rule under the National Transitional Council.
No parliamentary system and no political parties.

Government structure
Interim rule under the National Transitional Council.

Military Statistics
Manpower fit for military: 2.87 million
Expenditures: 3.9% of GDP
Branches: Armed Peoples on Duty, Libyan Arab Navy, Libyan Arab Air Force and Libyan Coast Guard

Former Rulers
1969- 2011: Muammar Gaddafi

1932-1942: Zentani Muhammad az-Zentani
1940: Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab.

1939-1940: Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa
1939: Abdul Ati al-Obeidi.


Capital
Tripoli
Altitude: 17 metres
Population: 1.1 million

Population

Size: 6.4 million
Life expectancy: 72 years (men), 77 years (women)
Gender Make-Up: 49 per cent males, 51 per cent females

GDP per capita
$14,900 (2010)

Geography
Area: 1,759,540sqkm
Land boundaries: Algeria 982km, Chad 1,055km, Egypt 1,115km, Niger 354km, Sudan 383km, Tunisia 459km

Major Languages
Arabic, Italian, English

Religious portfolio
Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%

National Make-up
Berber and Arab 97%, Other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians).

Natural Resources
Petroleum, Natural gas, Gypsum

Main exports
Crude oil, Petroleum products, Natural gas

Land Use

Arable land: 1.03%
Permanent crops: 0.19%
Other: 98.78%

Monetary Unit/Currency
Libyan dinar

Dialling Code
+218

Internet Code
.ly

Transport
Main Ports: Tripoli, Benghazi and Mersa Brega
Airport: Tripoli International Airport located at Ben Gashir, 34km southwest of Tripoli.

Modern issues

Environmental

Very limited natural fresh water- around most arable part of the country, average annual rainfall averages between 200 and 600 millilitres.
Desertification especially due to spread of overgrazing.
Contamination of environment by human waste.
Soil degradation especially due to excess use of pesticides.
The great man-made lake that the Guinness Book of records acknowledges is the biggest irrigation project

Political

New leadership after Muammar Gaddafi's 42-year rule.

Mustafa Abdul-Jalil proclaimed that Islamic Sharia law will be the ‘basic source’ of legislation in free Libya, to the shock of millions

Economic

Economy relies heavily on revenues from oil sector that contributes about 95 per cent of the export earnings.
Libya has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, thanks to the substantial revenues from the oil sector against a low population.
The country faces the challenge of liberalising the economy due to its socialist oriented economy.
Libya imports around 75 per cent of its food. The climatic and soil conditions don’t favour agricultural production

Social

Human trafficking.
Housing the growing population.
Low education standards
Low health standards.

Foreign Affairs

Libya was reinstated into the Arab League on 27 August, 2011, with the NTC as its representative

The People's Republic of China opposed the 2011 military intervention in Libya throughout the civil war, accusing the West of using force in an attempt to bring Libya into its sphere of influence

The US took longer than other leading NTC allies to formally recognise the council as Libya's legitimate authority, but it ultimately handed over the Libyan Embassy in Washington, D.C., to the NTC in early August 2011

The Major Conflicts

Libyan Civil War

When: 15 February 2011 - 23 October 2011

Who: Forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government

Why: The removal of the Gaddafi regime

Outcome: Gaddafi remained at large until 20 October 2011, when he was captured and killed attempting to escape from Sirte. The National Transitional Council "declared the liberation of Libya" and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011

Chad-Libya conflict
When: 1978-1987
Who: Libya and Chad forces
Why: Libya wanted to annex the Aouzou Strip, the northernmost part of Chad.
Outcome: Libyan forces expelled from Chad.

Libya-Egyptian
When: 1977
Who: Libya against Egypt
Why: Border war
Outcome: Ended in a ceasefire.

Lockerbie Explosion
When: 1988.
Who: A Pan Am 747 aircraft exploded killing 259 people aboard and 11 on the ground. This was over Lockerbie Scotland. Later, Libyan Islamists were held responsible for the explosion.
Why: Terrorists attack.
Outcome: Libya has signed an agreement to compensate the victims.

Military Coup
When: 1969
What: Seventy army officers and enlisted men took control of government and ended the monarch system; replaced it with Revolutionary Command Council (RCC).
Who: Army officers and enlisted men.
Why: Change system of government.
Outcome: Change of government system.

American Raid on Libya
When: 1986
What: America invades Libya
Who: America against Libya.
Why: worsening relations over territorial claims to the Gulf of Sidra
Outcome: Skirmishes continued with shooting of American plane over Mediterranean.

2011 uprising

In February 2011, anti-Gaddafi protests spread from Benghazi to other parts of the country. Rebels (backed by NATO) began to fight government forces in an attempt to capture territory

By August, the rebels storm into Gaddafi's compound in Tripoli. Colonel Gaddafi was forced to go into hiding while his family fled to Algeria.

On October 20th, Gaddafi was captured by the rebels in his hometown of Sirte where he was tortured and killed

What to see
Berber traditional architecture- these are unique mud-brick architecture villages scattered throughout the remote mountainous area
Leptis Magna- ancient remains of Roman settlement.
Red Castle- Tripoli’s fortress houses.
The Pentapolis- five ancient Libyan cities.
Ghadames- a Unesco protected oasis town also known as the pearl of the desert.

Sports
Popular Sports
Football, Athletics, Swimming, Martial arts, Boxing

Famous Sportsmen and Sportswomen
Mohamed Ali Esnani: a national footballer
Suleiman Ali Nashnush: a footballer and actor

Quirks
Libya has no natural rivers.