Mozambique By | Saturday, September 8  2012 at  16:03

Full Name
Republic of Mozambique (English)
República de Moçambique (Portuguese)
Formerly: Portuguese East African
Origins: The name is derived Mouzinho de Alburquerque, 19th Century Portuguese colonialist, who put down nationalist rebellions in the territory and thus established effective Portuguese control

Current Leader
Armando Guebuza

Overview
Bantu speakers migrated to Mozambique in the first millennium, and Arab and Swahili traders settled the region thereafter
The culture is mainly native Bantu mixed with European aspects
Former Portuguese colony
Achieved independence on June 25, 1975

Form of Government
Republic
Head of State is the President (elected by popular vote for five-year term and is eligible for second term)

Government structure
President, Prime Minister, Unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica

Military Statistics
Manpower fit for military service: 4,576,661 people
Expenditures: 0.8% of GDP (2006)
Branches: Mozambique Armed Defence Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)

Former Rulers
1975 – 1986 Samora Moisés Machel
1986-2005 Joaquim Chissano
2005 - Present Armando Guebuza

Capital
Maputo
Formerly known as Lourenco Marques
Altitude : 29 metres
Population: 1.192 million people

Population
Size: 23,049,621 (2011)
Life Expectancy: 41.2 years
Gender make-up: Female -50.74%, Male –49.26 %

GDP per capita
$982 (2011)

$913 (2010)

Geography
Area: 799,380sqkms
Land Boundaries: Malawi 1,569km, South Africa 491km, Swaziland 105km, Tanzania 756km, Zambia 419km, Zimbabwe 1,231km

Major Languages
Portuguese (official), Makua-Lomwe, Kiswahili, other indigenous languages

Religious Portfolio
Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1%

National Make-up
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Natural Resources
Coal, Titanium, Natural gas, Hydropower, Tantalum, Graphite, Sea food

Main exports
Seafood, Cotton, Sugar, Aluminium

Land Use

Arable land: 5.43%
Permanent crops: 0.29%
Other: 94.28%

Currency

Mozambican Metical

Dialling Code
+258

Internet Code
.mz

Transport
Main Airport: Maputo International Airport located 3km northwest of the city
Main Port: Beira

Modern issues

Environmental
Severe drought affecting food production
Perennial floods
Desertification
Pollution of surface and coastal waters
Elephant poaching for ivory
Environmentalists condemned planned damning of Zambezi River to build a hydro-electric at Nphanda Nkuwa

Political
Armando Guebuza was re-elected during the General Election held on October 28, 2009
Wikileaks ripped the cover off huge allegations of corruption. They stated that even the president is on the take and that tons of heroin and cocaine are heading for South Africa - the US embassy warned that Mozambique might now be the second most active narcotics transit point in Africa after Guinea Bissau

Economic
Mr Guebuza has placed a strong emphasis on upgrading air travel to the nation, opening a new cargo terminal at Vilankulo airport and launching the construction on a $102 million airport in the northern city of Nacala in an effort to expand infrastructure to attract tourists and investment

Coal mining project expected to boost exports
Tourism sector is flourishing due to legislative reforms and opening of high quality hotels and resorts throughout the country
Government is planning to double sugar production to increase exports
Economy suffered setback in 2000 and 2001 after major floods wrecked havoc after the civil war, but encouraging signs of recovery are notable

Social issues

Mozambique might now be the second most active narcotics transit point in Africa after Guinea Bissau

Food insecurity/malnutrition due to drought
Resettling of refugees who fled home during 16 – years civil war
Gender equality issues are enshrined in the constitution
Human trafficking

Foreign Policy issues
Currently has no disputes/foreign relation problem
The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to Renamo, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments
Relations between the US and Mozambique are good and steadily improving
Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organisations

The Major Conflicts

Portuguese colonial war
When: 1961–1974
Who: Liberation Front of Mozambique (Frelimo) vs Portuguese Guerilla campaign by Mozambicans against Portuguese rule
Why: Discrimination of natives, social pressure and quest for freedom
Outcome: Frelimo took control of the territory and Mozambique gained independence

Mozambique civil war
When:1977-1992
Who: Mozambican National Resistance Movement (Renamo) vs Frelimo
Why: Governance issues and Frelimo's hostility to neighbouring white minority governments was manifested in support for ZANLA (the Zimbabwean nationalist guerrillas in Rhodesia) and the ANC (African National Congress in S. Africa). Rhodesia arranged to consolidate opposition to the Frelimo by the Renamo movement, which conducted raids within Mozambique
Outcome: Nkomati agreement halting support to the ANC on the one hand, and Renamo on the other. A peace agreement was signed leading to multiparty elections

Sports
Popular Sports
Football
Basketball
Athletics
Surfing

Famous Sportsmen and Sportswomen

Maria Mutola: Mozambican 800m athlete who has won several gold medals in major world competitions
Clarisse Machanguana: Famous Mozambican basketball player. She played internationally in both the US (WNBA from 1999-2002) and in Spain (FC Barcelona since 2003). She also represented Mozambique at the 2006 Lusophony Games in Macau, China

Quirks
Graca Machel became the first African woman to be the first lady of two nations.