Egypt By | Saturday, September 8  2012 at  15:12

Overview
Arabs introduced Islam and Arabic in 7th century and ruled the hitherto predominantly Christian country for six centuries.
Mamlukis took control around 1250.
Egypt conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517.
After completion of Sue Canal, Egypt became a transport hub but also fell in debts.
Britain took control in 1882.
Egypt acquired full sovereignty in 1952 after overthrow of British backed monarchy.

Current Leader

Adli Mansour (see profile) will take on the role of interim president until fresh elections are called. Mohammed Morsy was deposed by the military on July 3, 2013.

FACTS
Full Name of state
Arab Republic of Egypt
Origins of name – it’s derived from an ancient name Ht-ka-ptah which meant House of the Ka of ptah. Ptah was one of the early Egyptian gods. According to historians, it is the Greeks who modified the name Ht-ka-ptah to Aegyptus to refer to the Egyptian god as they had difficulty pronouncing the h at the beginning of the original name
Formerly – United Arab Republic

Form of Government
Republic
- President elected by popular vote for a six year term
- No term limits

Government structure
-President
-Prime minister
-Bicameral parliamentary system

Military Statistics
•Manpower: 36,210,427
•Expenditures: 3.4 per cent of GDP (2005 statistics)
•Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Current Ruler

Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court, Adli Mansour

Former Rulers
•1953-1956: President Mohamed Naguib
•1956-1970: President Gamal Abed Al Nasser
•1970-1981: Anuar Al Sadat
•1981 - 2011: Hosni Mubarak

•2012 - July 3, 2013: Mohammed Morsy

Capital
•Cairo
Altitude – 26 metres
Population – 7.7 million (2004)

Population
•Size: 81,674,000 (2012)
•Life expectancy: 71.3 million
• Gender Make-Up: males 50.4%, females 49.6 %

GDP per capita
$ 6,600 (2011)

$ 6,600 (2010)

Geography
•Area: 1,001,450 sq km
•Land boundaries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Major Languages
•Arabic (official)
•English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religious portfolio
•Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%
•Coptic 9%,
• Christian 1%

National Make-up
•Egyptians 99.6%,
•other 0.4% (2006 census)

Natural Resources
•Oil
•Gas
•Phosphate
•Iron ore
•Gold
•Manganese,
•Limestone
•Gypsum
•Talc
•Asbestos
•Lead,
•Zinc
•Nile water
•Papyrus plant

Main exports
•Crude oil and petroleum products
•Cotton
•Textiles
•Metal products

Land Use
•Arable land: 2.92%
•Permanent crops: 0.5%
•Other: 96.58% (2005)

Monetary Unit/Currency
•Egyptian Pound

Dialing Code
•+20

Internet Code
•.eg

Transport
•Main Port: Alexandria port
•Airport: Cairo International Airport located 22 KM from Cairo city.

Modern issues
Environmental
•Losing Agricultural land to urbanization
•Soil salination below Aswan High Dam.
•Desertification
•Oil pollution

Political

•On February 11, 2011, after an 18-day popular revolution which centred on Cairo’s Tahrir Square, Hosni Mubarak was forced to resign as the President of Egypt

•Problematic attempt to adopt a democratic system of government.

•Managing a growing youthful population.

•Following days of protests by millions at Tahrir square, the military announced on July 3, 2013 that it had removed President Morsy from power and suspended the constitution. Army chief General Abdul Fattah al-Sisi made the announcement in a television address.

Economic
•Egypt now goes China to improve foreign domestic Investment FDI) . Last year alone, Egypt experienced a decline of up to 39 per cent on FDI to$8.1 billion due to the financial crisis.
•The government expects the economy is expected to grow at 5 per cent during the 2009/2010 year.
•Egypt is an economy in transition after its economic reforms effected at the end of 90s to make it a market economy.
•Construction and service sectors are the main economic drivers.

Social
•Growing population against dwindling natural resources.
•Drug trafficking: Over the years, Egypt has become the transit point for cannabis, heroine even opium on their way to Europe, Israel and North Africa.
•High rate of migration to other countries in search for employment opportunities by young graduates.
•High unemployment rates still high despite improvements as a result of economic growth.

Foreign Affairs
•Traditionally non-allied, wanted to remain independent.
•Ideal was to be a prosperous state and be a leader within Arab world.
•Egypt could not stand on its own due to economic incapability.
•Had to rely on Soviet Union especially when US support for Israel after June 1967 war.
•Dilemma for Egypt’s foreign policy is her aspiration for national independence and vision to be a leader in the Arab-Islamic world and its traditional non-aligned entity.

The Major Conflicts
Arab-Israeli War
•When: 1948 (1948-1949)
•Who: Arabs against Israelis
•Why: The Gaza Strip
•Outcome: Egypt acquired the Gaza Strip

2nd Arab-Israeli War
•When: 1967
•Who: Arab-Israeli War
•Why: resource war/water.
•Outcome: Israel took charge of Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights.

Suez Canal Crisis
When: October 1956
Who: Britain, France and Israel
Why: Egypt’s decision to nationalize Suez Canal
Outcome: A cease-fire.

What to see?
•The Pyramids: believed to have been constructed between 3000 BC and 1800 BC, the pyramids located west of River Nile are testimony to ancient Egyptian knowledge and engineering skills. The pyramids of Giza are the most widely known among the ten pyramid sites.
•Ancient Egyptian architecture and art.
•Valley of the Kings, the royal tombs of the Egypt’s royals.
•The Sphinx

Sports
Popular Sports
•Football
•Basketball
•Handball
Famous Sportsmen and Sportswomen
•Hassan Shehata- Egyptian coach and former player who has won several awards.
•Mahmoud El Gohary, former player and coach. Considered one of the best coaches of the national team ever.

Quirks
•The Giza Sphinx