Chad By | Saturday, September 8   2012 at  14:54

Full Name
The Republic of Chad (English)
République du Tchad (French)
تشاد tshad / Jumhuriyat Tshad (Arabic)
Origins of name: named after Lake Chad, which means a large expanse of water in a local language

Formerly: Tchad

Current Leader
Idriss Deby

Overview
History of violence due to the tensions between the Muslim North and the Christian South
Most of the state is desert with a desert climate
Former French colony
Attained independence on the August 11,1960
The proliferation of civil conflict in 2007 led to a state of emergency being called in 2008

Facts

Form of Government
Republic
Chief of State is the President who is elected every 5 years
Candidates in presidential elections must win at least 50 per cent of the vote or the top two candidates will participate in a second round of voting

Government Structure
Chief of State: President
Head of State: Prime Minister
Cabinet: recommended by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President

Military Statistics
Manpower fit for service: 1,906,545 male and 2,258,758 female
Expenditures: 4.2% of GDP
Branches: Armed Forces: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie.

Current leader

1990 - Present Lieutenant-General Idriss Déby

Former Rulers
1960-1975 François (N’Garta) Tombalbaye – Head of State and President
1975-1979 Félix Malloum N'Gakoutou – Head of State and President
1979 Lol Mahamat Choua – President of Transitional Government of National Union
1979-1982 Goukouni Oueddei – Chairman of the Transitional Government of the National Union
1982-1990 Hissène Habré
1990 - Present Lieutenant-General Idriss Déby

Capital
N'Djamena
Altitude: 297 metres
Population: 721,081 people

Population
Size: 10,975,648 (2012)
Life Expectancy: 47.7 years
Gender Make-Up: Female – 51.3%, Male – 48.7%

GDP per capita

$ 1,900 (2011)

$ 1,900 (2010)

Geography
Area: 1.284 million sq km
Land boundaries: Cameroon 1,094km, Central African Republic 1,197km, Libya 1,055km, Niger 1,175km, Nigeria 87km, Sudan 1,360km

Major Languages
French, Arabic

Religious portfolio
Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, Traditionalist 7.3%, Other 0.5%, Unknown 1.7%, Atheist 3.1%

National Make-up
Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, Other 6.4%,Unknown 0.3%

Natural Resources
Petroleum, Uranium, Natron, Kaolin, Fish (Lake Chad), Gold, Limestone, Sand and gravel, Salt

Main exports
Cotton, Oil, Livestock, Textiles

Land Use
Arable land: 2.8%
Permanent crops: 0.02%
Other: 97.18%

Monetary Unit/Currency
CFA (Communaute Financiere Africaine) Franc

Dialling Code
+235

Internet Code
.td

Transport
Main Airport: N’Djaména (NDJ) which is northwest of the city
Main Port: n/a

Modern issues

Environmental
Inadequate supplies of water
Improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution
Desertification
Lake Chad, which used to be one of the world’s largest, could disappear within 20 years triggering a humanitarian disaster

Political
The military and the use of force have been instrumental in attaining political power in Chad
There has been no government that has been successful in being inclusive for all the various population groups
In 2005: Constitutional amendment was passed allowing the president to run for a third term
In 2006, Idriss Deby won a third term in office despite the main opposition parties accusing him of corruption
April 2006: Attempted coup by rebels

In 2011, Mr. Idriss Deby was re-elected for a fourth term with 89 per cent of the April vote

In 2011, Chad rebel group (Popular Front for Reconstruction) signed a peace accord with the government, paving the way for it to return home after setting up in Central African Republic around three years ago

Economic
In 2009: the United Bank of Africa (UBA) has started full-scale banking operations in Chad
Has suffered from minimal private investment due to political conflicts and lack of natural resources
Chad is now an oil-exporting state and may benefit from this

In 2011, the Government of Chad and Chinese engineering firm CAMC signed a $1 billion deal to build a new international airport north of the capital N'Djamena

Social
The Libyan civil war has had a huge negative on Chad. The International Crisis Group warns that upheavals related to Gaddafi's demise include a massive flight home of migrants, the possible resurgence of militant Islamism and the proliferation of fighters and weapons

A Chinese backed oil project was not properly assessed and threatens to displace hundreds of people if the pipeline is built
The ethnic and religious variety in Chad has meant it is difficult to create a cooperative society amidst all the antagonism
There exists widespread displacement, high numbers of orphans and broken families due to the civil conflicts

Foreign Affairs
Relations between Sudan and Chad have been strained as both governments accuse the other of supporting the conflicts within their states, this is despite the non-aggression agreement that was signed in 2008, aimed at stopping cross-border hostilities
There are a vast number of Sudanese refugees being driven into Chad by both Janjaweed militia and the Sudanese Government
Chadian children are being trafficked to other African nations for sexual exploitation, domestic servitude and other forms of forced labour
Chad continues to have close ties with France

The Major Conflicts

Chadian Civil War
When: 1965-1979
Who: Rebellious factions (the most prominent being the National Liberation Front of Chad – FROLINAT) with support from Libya VS President Tombalbaye’s government with support from the French
Why: Started as a spontaneous peasant uprising in Guéra Prefecture in 1965. President Tombalbaye’s one-party government was accused of favouring the Christian South over the central and Muslim North
Outcome: In 1975 President Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed and in 1979 rebel factions took over the capital and central authority collapsed

Chad-Libya Conflict
When: 1978-1990 (sporadic interventions)
Who: Libyan forces with certain Chadian factions VS Libyan opponents (supported by the French Government)
Why: It is said President Gaddafi had ambitions to annex the Aouzou strip, which is claimed to be rich in uranium deposits
Outcome: Chadian forces, with French and US support, united against the Libyans and in 1994 an International Court of Justice decision found in favour of Chadian Sovereignty over the Aouzou region

Movement for Democracy and Justice (MDJT)
When: 1998-2003
Who: Chadian Rebel Forces VS Idriss Deby’s Government
Why: The MDJT was seeking to overthrow President Deby’s Government in pursuit of change and democracy
Outcome: An agreement was signed in 2003 which ensured high-ranking positions for MDJT members

Civil War
When:2005-Present
Who: Chadian Government Forces VS Chadian rebel groups (United Front for Democratic Change, United Forces for Development and Democracy, Gathering of Forces for Change and the National Accord of Chad). The Conflict has also involved the Janjaweed and Sudanese forces
Why: In 2005 the constitution was changed to allow President Deby to run for a third term in office, which resulted in Deby having to reform his military and guard, encouraging opposition groups to grow
Outcome: Ongoing

What to see?
Lake Chad: One of the World’s largest water deposits with floating islands and is surrounded by flora and fauna
Hedger el Hamish (Elephant Rocks): Volcanic Rocks that resemble elephants they are located near a caved grotto and there is a good view of lake Chad

Sports
Popular Sports
Football
Basketball
Athletics
Fishing
Famous Sportsmen and Sportswomen
Japheth N’Doram – Won the French Ligue 1 soccer title with Nantes FC in 1995

Quirks
Chad is one of the few countries in the World that does not have a railroad