Republic of the Sudan (English)
Jumhūrīyat as Sūdān (Arabic)
Origins of name: Name was derived from the Arabic phrase - bilad as-Sudan, "land of the blacks"
Formerly: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
President Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir
Sudan went through two prolonged civil wars most of the 20th century. The triggers were mostly to do with the domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese.
North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005 offering the southerners autonomy for six years.
Referendum to determine independence of North and South or unity conducted in January 2011, Southern Sudanese voters opted for secession.
In 2003, a conflict broke out in Darfur. This left between 200,000 and 400,000 people dead and displaced about 2 million people.
Form of Government
Government of National Unity (GNU) the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA.). In January, South Sudan voted for secession.
President, First Vice-President, Second Vice-President, Unicameral parliament.
Manpower fit for military service: To be established.
Expenditures: to be established.
Branches: Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force, Popular Defence Forces
President Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir
1986-1989: Ahmed Ali Al-Mirghani (President).
1985 – 1986: Abdulrahman Siwar Al-Dhab
1969 – 1985: Gaafar Mohamad Numeiry
1958 – 1964: Ibrahim Aboud
1965 – 1969: Ismail Al-Azhari
Population: 4.5 million (2008 estimates)
Size: 23 Million
Life expectancy: 51.4
Gender Make-Up: males 50.6 per cent, females 49.4 per cent
GDP per capita
To be established.
Area: To be agreed together with South Sudan.
Land boundaries: Central African Republic 1,165km, Chad 1,360km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628km, Egypt 1,273km, Eritrea 605km, Ethiopia 1,606km, Kenya 232km, Libya 383km, Uganda 435km and South Sudan
Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum), Indigenous beliefs 25%
To be re-established after secession of South Sudan.
Oil, Small reserves of iron ore, Copper, Chromium ore, Zinc, Tungsten, Mica, Silver, Gold, Hydropower
Oil, Cotton, Sesame, Livestock and hides
Arable land: 6.78%
Permanent crops: 0.17%
Main Port: Port Sudan
Airport: Khartoum International Airport located 3km from Khartoum city.
Inadequate supplies of portable water
Struggle for recognition from other countries
Unresolved issues with South Sudan including wealth/debt sharing, oil sharing etc.
President Bashir has accepted the outcome of a referendum in which Southern Sudan voted overwhelmingly for independence in 2011
As part of a package of reforms aimed at democratising the country, Bashir announced that he will not stand in the next presidential election due in four years.
In 2007, Sudanese Government introduced new currency, Sudanese pound.
Agriculture employs 80 per cent of the population.
Agriculture contributes a third of the GDP.
Sudan began exporting crude oil in the last quarter of 1999
From 1997 to date, Sudan has been working with the IMF to implement macroeconomic reforms, including a managed float of the exchange rate
Bashir released 140 female prisoners to South Sudan who were tried under Sharia law. The suspects were charged on Islamic laws - and they are not Muslims
Catering for the needs of the huge refugee population.
Sudan is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked internally for the purposes of forced labour and sexual exploitation.
Unemployment- stands at 18.7 per cent ( 2000 figures)
Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and much of the international community owing to what is viewed as its aggressively Islamic stance
There continues to be high tensions over the oil-rich Abyei region, both sides bitterly claiming ownership of the fertile area, and clashes between Northern and Southern forces have occurred
The Major Conflicts
When: Erupted in 2003
Who: Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Darfur
Why: The two groups accused government of oppressing black Africans in favour of Arabs
Results: Several people killed, millions displaced, thousands starve to death.
Who: Arab militia against SPLM
Why: Unresolved conflict on the Abyei area contested by both North and South factions of Sudan.
Outcome: A deal was signed but there were over 2 million people dead and over 50,000 refugees.
What to see
The Red Sea, especially its coral reef.
Dinder National Park located South East of Khartoum along the Ethiopian border is 6,475sqkm offers a variety of wildlife.
Jebel Marra- at 3,088m high, this is the highest peak in the Darfur region. Its waterfalls and volcanic lakes offer beautiful scenery.
Famous Sportsmen and Sportswomen
Haitham Mustafa: Midfield soccer player for Al-Hilal and Sudanese national team.
Abubaker Kaki: A double 800m gold medallist at the All Africa Games in July 2007 in Algiers, and the Pan Arab Games in November in Cairo, becoming one of the best junior athletes in the world
Omer Khalifa: An athlete who set a national record over 1,500m in Grossetto, Italy in 19t86.