Tanzania By | Sunday, September 9   2012 at  14:58

Full Name
United Republic of Tanzania (English)
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania (Kiswahili)
Origins of name: Derived from the union of Mainland Tanganyika and the Islands of Zanzibar
Previously: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Current Leader
Jakaya Kikwete

Overview
Tanganyika was a German protectorate until the end of World War One when it became British
Tanganyika gained independence from Britain in 1961 (with Julius Nyerere as Prime Minister)
Zanzibar gained independence in 1963 from Britain
Tanzania was formed in 1964 when Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged
Zanzibar is semi-autonomous and has its own government; Amani Abeid Karume is the President of Zanzibar and the main political parties are Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and the Civic United Front (CUF)

Facts


Form of Government
Republic
Chief of State and Head of Government is the President who is elected every five years
The President is eligible for a second term

Government structure
Chief of State and Head of Government (President), Vice-President, Cabinet; appointed by the President from members of the National Assembly

Military Statistics
Manpower fit for service: 9,108,177 people
Expenditures: 0.2% GDP
Branches: Tanzanian People's Defence Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defence Command (includes Air Wing), National Service

Former Rulers
1964 – 1985 Julius Nyerere
1985 – 1995 Ali Hassan Mwinyi
1995 – 2005 Benjamin Mkapa
2005 – Present Jakaya Kikwete

Capital
Dodoma
Altitude: 3698ft
Population: 180,541 people

Dar es Salaam (Former capital and is now the commercial centre)
Altitude: 56ft
Population: 2.699 million

Population
Size: 43,188,000 (2010)
Life expectancy: 52 years
Gender make-up: Female – 50.5%, Male – 49.5%

GDP per capita

$1,521 (2011)

$1,435 (2010)

Geography
Area: 947,300 sq km
Land boundaries: Burundi 451km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459km, Kenya 769km, Malawi 475km, Mozambique 756km, Rwanda 217km, Uganda 396km, Zambia 338km

Major Languages
English, Kiswahili

Religious portfolio
Mainland; Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, Indigenous beliefs 35%
Zanzibar; More than 99% Muslim

National Make-up
Mainland; African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab)
Zanzibar; Arab, African, Mixed Arab and African

Natural Resources
Minerals - gold, diamonds, tanzanite and various other gemstones, natural gas, iron ore, coal, spring water, phosphates, soda ash and salt.
Wildlife and Tourism - 12 National Parks, the Ngorongoro conservation area, 13 Game reserves, 38 Game Controlled Areas: National Cultural Heritage Sites (about 120 sites)
Fisheries - three large lakes: Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi, the Indian Ocean coastline, rivers and wetlands. Potential yield of fish from natural waters is estimated to be 730,000 metric tons annually, present catch is 350,000 metric tons.
Forestry and beekeeping non-reserved forest-land (1,903.8km2), forest/woodlands with national parks etc (200km2), and Gazetted forest reserves (1,251.7km2 )

Main exports
Sisal, Cloves, Coffee, Cotton, Cashew nuts, Minerals, Tobacco

Land Use
Arable land: 4.23%
Permanent crops: 1.16%
Other: 94.61%

Monetary Unit/Currency
Tanzanian Shilling

Dialling Code
+255

Internet Code
.tz

Transport
Main ports: Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Pemba Island, Tanga, Zanzibar
Airport : Julius Nyerere International Airport (DAR) located at 12km from Dar es Salaam’s CBD

Modern issues

Environmental
Soil degradation
Deforestation
Desertification
Destruction of coral reefs, which is threatening marine habitats
Recent droughts affected marginal agriculture
Wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory

Political
In 2011, whistleblower website WikiLeaks released a confidential US embassy cable which stated that Mr. Kikwete accepted gifts from the owner of an international hotel chain in return for patronage, terming. Claims which the state house refuted calling them "baseless and unfounded." According to the cable, Mr Ali Albwardy-- the owner of the Kempinski Hotel chain and a United Arab Emirates citizen-- flew President Kikwete to London for a subsidised shopping expedition

Economic
In 2011, Standard Chartered bank stated that Tanzania is one of East Africa’s most consistent growth economies, seen growing at 6.7 per cent. They commended the broad-based nature of Tanzania's growth, with growth across sectors including mining, construction, agriculture and tourism

Social
Tanzania has been unsuccessfully grappling with issues of drug trafficking this year. One example of the severity of the issues is when President Kiwete noted that some religious leaders were using youths to import and peddle the drugs

Discrimination against Albinism; albinos have been routinely killed because witchdoctors say that potions made with their body parts will bring good fortune in love, life and business to those who use them –an estimated 53 albinos have been killed in the last 2 years
Tanzania has launched a bank as part of a movement for female empowerment
Problems relating to alcohol abuse are on the increase

Foreign Affairs
There exists a regional parliament and court of justice in Arusha so that the presidents of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya can legislate on matters of common interest
South Korea has made a deal to develop farmland in Tanzania; 1,000sqkm will be developed - half for local farmers, half to produce processed goods for South Korea
In 2006, China and Tanzania established economic ties and signed energy deals. Agreements were made by China to help Tanzania’s health, communication and transport sectors

The Major Conflicts

Zanzibar Revolution
When: 1964
Who: Afro-Shirazi Party VS Sultanate of Zanzibar
Why: Replace the conservative Arab-dominated regime with one that espoused the principles of African nationalism and radical socialism
Outcome: Sayyid Jamshid ibn Abdullah was deposed and Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika to form Tanzania

Uganda – Tanzania War
When: 1978-1979
Who: Uganda (under Amin) VS Tanzania (under Nyerere)
Why: Amin attempted to annex the Kagera region in Tanzania
Outcome: Tanzanian forces repelled an incursion of Ugandan forces on Tanzanian territory. Supported by Ugandan exiles, the Tanzanian forces waged a war of liberation against Amin and won despite Libyan support for Amin. Kampala was captured and Amin fled

What to see?
Msasani Fishing Village: very close to Dar es Salaam, this village has tombs which date back to the 17th century
Bagamoyo Town: Historic town which was a one-time slave port and terminus for the trade caravans
Stone Town (Zanzibar): once ruled by Shirazi Persians, the Portuguese, the Omani Arabs and British colonials. Streets are lined with exotic shops, bazaars, colonial mansions, mosques and squares

Sports
Popular Sports
Football
Cricket
Basketball
Athletics

Famous sportsmen and sportswomen
John Stephen Akhwari: Marathon runner – he represented Tanzania in the 1968 Olympics and despite falling and injuring himself, gained worldwide acclaim for finishing the race
Juma Ikangaa: World class marathoner; winner of New York City Marathon in 1989
Filbert Bayi: Set world athletics records for 1,500m 1974 and the mile in 1975

Quirks
The legendary 2 million year old human remains of Homohabilis, the earliest human remains, were found in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania
The Coconut Crab which inhabits the waters off Zanzibar's Chumbe Island is the largest crab in the world
Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania is home to unique tree-climbing lions
Mount Kilimanjaro became a part of German East Africa after Karl Peters, a German explorer, persuaded local chiefs to sign treaties in 1880