South Sudan By | Sunday, September 9   2012 at  14:50

Full Name
Republic of South Sudan

Origins of name: To do with the location South of Sudan whose name was derived from the Arabic phrase - bilad as-Sudan, "land of the blacks"

Current Leader
President Salva Kiir Mayardit

The Overview
Until 1956, Sudan was jointly ruled by Egypt and Britain as a single unit. Post-independence, Southerners wanted to part ways with the Northerners, a fact that provoked several civil wars, until 1972 when the North let go by decreeing semi autonomy. But that was short-lived because in 1983, the North reclaimed the South, provoking a war that was ended by the 2005 North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, offering the Southerners autonomy for six years.
Referendum to determine independence of North and South or unity conducted in January 2011, Southern Sudanese voters opted for secession.


FACTS
Form of Government
Multiparty system of government


Government structure
President, Vice-President and the Council of Ministers, bicameral parliament


Military Statistics
According to Geneva-based Small Arms Survey, the Sudan People's Liberation Army has around 140,000 troops


Capital: Juba
Altitude: 458m
Population: 163, 442 (2005 estimates)


Population
Size: 8.2 million (2008 census)
Life expectancy: No data
Gender Make-Up: males 52 per cent, females 48 per cent


GDP per capita
Not established


Geography
Area: 589,745 square km


Land boundaries: South Sudan is bordered to the North by Sudan; to the east by Ethiopia, to the south by Kenya and Uganda and to the west by the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic

Major Languages
English is the official language of the government. A dialect of Arabic also widely spoken.


Religious portfolio
Mainly traditional worship and Christianity with a Muslim minority.


National Make-up
No data


Natural Resources
Oil, uranium and vast unexploited agricultural land


Main exports
Oil, Livestock and hides


Land Use
No data


Monetary Unit/Currency
Sudanese Pound


Dialling Code
+ 249 ( code sharing with Sudan)


Internet Code
.sd to change to .ss after secession.


Transport
Main Port: landlocked
Airport: Juba International Airport


Modern issues


Environmental
Inadequate supplies of portable water
Soil erosion
Desertification
Periodic drought


Political
Managing a new country with several competing interests
Striking an agreement with Khartoum on national boundaries, citizenship issues and wealth sharing


Economic
After decades of war, South Sudan remains underdeveloped. As it gains independence, the country has a major task of development its infrastructure, plus export products to avoid over-reliance on oil

Market speculation on the US dollar has shot up in South Sudan as foreign exchange earnings since January shrunk considerably due to the shutdown in oil production

In a bid to keep out fakes and improve on the quality of goods and services and protect customers an anti-dumping law forming a statutory regulatory body was established. Companies that have been dumping sub-standard goods in South Sudan risk losing their market share if they fail to raise their standards when a new law comes into force


Social
There has been persisting violence in the new state due to both border tension and internal rebel conflict. Most recently, South Sudan says provocations by Sudan, particularly the occupation of her border areas, were “too much” and that it has ordered its army to expel Sudan forces from Jau area in the oil-rich Unity state.

Foreign Affairs
South Sudan enjoys massive support from different countries angling for country’s resources, markets and even job opportunities.


The Major Conflicts
Darfur Conflict
When: Erupted in 2003
Who: Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Darfur
Why: The two groups accused government of oppressing black Africans in favour of Arabs
Results: Several people killed, millions displaced, thousands starve to death.


Abyei Clash
When: 2008
Who: Arab militia against SPLM
Why: Unresolved conflict on the Abyei area contested by both North and South factions of Sudan.
Outcome: A deal was signed but there were over 2 million people dead and over 50,000 refugees.

Kiir-Machar clash

Dr Riek Machar was dismissed from his post as Vice President in July 2013. President Kiir. Tension built up until mid-December 2013 when an incident between rival soldiers in the barracks in Juba led to President Kiir's claims of an attempted coup.

The conflict spread from the capital to the rest of the country. As violence broke out between government and rebel factions, many countries evacuated their staff and hundreds of thousands South Sudanese were displaced and fled to neighbouring countries.


What to see
Archaeological and historical sites
Wildlife migration


Sports
Popular Sports
Football
Basketball


Famous Sportsmen and Sportswomen
The late Manute Bol: Former NBA basketball player


Quirks
South Sudan has produced several NBA players for example Manute Bol & Luol Deng