Aid has saved millions of Africans from early deathBy JEFFREY SACHS | Friday, June 1 2012 at 13:31
The critics of foreign aid are wrong. A growing flood of data shows that death rates in many poor countries are falling sharply, and that aid-supported programmes for healthcare delivery have played a key role. Aid works; it saves lives.
One of the newest studies by Gabriel Demombynes and Sofia Trommlerova, shows that Kenya’s infant mortality has plummeted in recent years, and attributes a significant part of the gain to the massive uptake of anti-malaria bed nets.
Let’s turn back the clock a dozen years. In 2000, Africa was struggling with three major epidemics. Aids was killing more than two million people each year, and spreading rapidly. Malaria was surging, owing to the parasite’s growing resistance to the standard medicine at the time. Tuberculosis was also soaring, partly as a result of the Aids epidemic and partly because of the emergence of drug-resistant TB.
In addition, hundreds of thousands of women were dying in childbirth each year, because they had no access to safe deliveries in a clinic or hospital, or to emergency help when needed.
These interconnected crises prompted action. Member states of the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals in September 2000. Three of the eight MDGs – reductions in children’s deaths, maternal deaths, and epidemic diseases – focus directly on health.
At the second of these summits, then-UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan called for the creation of the Global Fund to Fight Aids, TB, and Malaria.
The Global Fund began operations in 2002, financing prevention, treatment, and care programmes for the three diseases. High-income countries also finally agreed to reduce the debt owed by heavily indebted poor countries, allowing them to spend more on healthcare.
The United States also took action, adopting two major programmes, one to fight Aids and the other to fight malaria. In 2005, the UN Millennium Project recommended ways to scale up primary healthcare in the poorest countries.
Donor aid did start to rise sharply as a result of all of these efforts. In 1995, total aid for healthcare was around $7.9 billion. This inadequate level then crept up slowly, to $10.5 billion by 2000.
By 2005, however, annual aid for health had jumped another $5.9 billion, and by 2010, the total had grown by another $10.5 billion, to reach $26.9 billion for the year.
The expanded funding allowed major campaigns against Aids, TB and malaria; a major scaling up of safe childbirth; and increased vaccine coverage, including the near-eradication of polio.
The public-health successes can now be seen on many fronts. Around 12 million children under five died in 1990. By 2010, this number had declined to around 7.6 million – still far too high, but definitely an historic improvement.
Malaria deaths in children in Africa were cut from a peak of around one million in 2004 to around 700,000 by 2010, and, worldwide, deaths of pregnant women declined from an estimated 543,000 to 287,000 between 1990 and 2010.
Another $10-15 billion in annual aid bringing the total to around $40 billion per year, would enable still greater progress to be made in the coming years.
Unfortunately, at every step during the past decade – and still today – a chorus of sceptics has argued against the needed help. They have repeatedly claimed that aid does not work; that the funds will simply be wasted; that anti-malaria bed nets cannot be given to the poor, since the poor won’t use them; that the poor will not take anti-Aids medicines properly; and so on and so forth. Their attacks have been relentless (I’ve faced my share).
The opponents of aid are not merely wrong. Their vocal antagonism still threatens the funding needed to get the job done, to cut child and maternal deaths by enough to meet the MDGs by 2015 in the poorest countries, and to continue after that to ensure that all people everywhere finally have access to basic health services.
A decade of significant progress in health outcomes has proved the sceptics wrong. Aid for healthcare works to save and improve lives. Let us continue to support these life-saving programmes which uphold the dignity of all people on the planet.
Prof Sachs teaches Economics and is director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. He is also Special Adviser to UN Secretary-General on the MDGs.
(c): Project Syndicate, 2012. www.project-syndicate.org.
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